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1. What is the scientific name of the maqui berry?
  • Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz ( chilensis) is the scientific name of maqui. It is a plant of the Elaeocarpaceae family that grows in the temperate forests in central and southern Chile as well as southwestern Argentina.
3. Which is the botanical taxonomy classification of the maqui berry?
  • The following table provides the taxonomical classification of Aristotelia chilensis:

Kingdom

Plantae

Sub-kingdom

Tracheobionta

Division

Magnoliophyta (ex Angiospermae)

Class

Magnoliopsida (ex Dicotyledones)

Sub-class

Dillenidae

Order

Malvales or oxidales

Sub-order

Sterculiinae

Family

Elaeocarpaceae

Genus

Aristotelia

Species

Chilensis

Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 2016, 17, 1-11.

 

 

5. What is the nutritional value of the maqui fresh fruit?

For each 100 g of fresh fruit the contents are:

  • 150 calories
  • 0,8 g of proteins
  • 0,8 g of raw fiber
  • 1,2 g ashes
  • 87 mg calcium, 44 mg phosphorous, 30,5 mg iron y 296 mg potassium
  • It also contains a considerable content of vitamin C and oligoelements, such as Br, Zn, Cl, Co, Cr, Vn, Tn, and Mo 18.
7.What are polyphenols and flavonoids?
  • These compounds are biosynthesized by plants (their fruits, leafs, stems, roots, seeds, or other parts). All polyphenols display antioxidant properties. These compounds give an account of the greater part of the antioxidant activity that is exhibited by fruits, vegetables, and certain regularly consumed infusions and natural drinks. In turn, it is possible to distinguish compound subtypes among the polyphenols: flavonoids, which are also divided into 6 groups: anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanones, flavones, and isoflavones.

 

 

9.What is ORAC? How is it measured and why is it important?
  • There are several thousand polyphenolic compounds in plants, and many of them have antioxidant capacity (AOC). Due to the difficulty of quantifying the individual antioxidant compounds, a method for providing the “sum” of the antioxidant compounds in plants and biological samples is useful. This type of analysis frequently refers to testing the “total” antioxidant capacity.
  • The acronym ORAC comes from the phrase Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity. This reflects the overall activity or capacity that all of the antioxidants present in a food product have in order to “turn off” or neutralize free radicals that are a result of oxidative stress.
  • The level of antioxidant activity in a food item is measured according to its ORAC rating (oxygen radical absorbance capacity): the higher the ORAC rating, the more powerful the antioxidant activity of the food item.
  • The ORAC 5.0 is a complete analysis based on an ORAC method which conducts antioxidant tests against these 5 reactive species. The maqui berry has an antioxidant capacity that is higher than the acai berry, goji berry, pomegranates, and raspberries, and the highest ORAC 5.0 of all fruits analyzed to the present day.

 

11. Why are maquis packed with so many beneficial compounds?
  • The special climatic conditions prevalent in the South of Chile, characterized by large temperature variations and high levels of solar radiation, puts great stress on the plants that grow in the region. This causes plants to produce high levels of antioxidants, as a way to combat the adverse conditions. These same molecules have health benefits when consumed as part of a healthy diet.
  • Careful picking by local communities and organic processing ensures that the integrity of nutrients is preserved in the final products.
12. . Has maqui been used in traditional Chilean medicine?
  • Infusions of its leaves have long been used in the traditional native herbal medicine to treat different ailments (Suwalsky et al., 2008). Because of this, the Chilean Ministry of Health included the maqui plant as a traditional herbal medicine in its publication Medicamentos Herbarios Tradicionales, from 2009.
  • The leaves and fruits have been used in Chilean folk medicine as anti-diarrheic, anti-inflammatory, anti-hemorrhagic and febrifuge (Hoffmann et al, 1992).
  • Other sources indicate that maqui has been used by the indigenous Mapuche people as a natural medicine due to its multiple health benefits, such as ointment for burns and wounds, and as a treatment for throat soreness, diarrhea, and as an analgesic and antipyretic.

13. Is maqui use authorized in Europe?
  • Of course. The Italian Ministry of Health has allowed the use of maqui fruit and recognized its effect as an antioxidant in the Executive Decree 27 March 2014 of the Italian Ministry of Health.
  • Because of the principle of mutual recognition, import and commercialization of maqui in other EU member states can be authorized as long as it complies with national legislation.
15. Are maqui berries used by Arauco organic?
  • Yes, it was decided that fruit harvesting process would comply with the certification requirements of “organic product” imparted by ECOCERT, a company which is a global leader in monitoring and guaranteeing the quality and certification of organic, environmentally-friendly products.
  • ECOCERT has certified Arauco in Wild Collection, Processing, Marketing and Export of Organic Products, Production of Organic Crops and Manipulation of Organic Products for all products related to maqui: fresh maqui, frozen maqui, freeze-dried maqui and maqui juices.

     

17. What is freeze-dried maqui berry?
  • Maqui powder obtained from freeze drying and milling of 100% pure maqui berry frozen The maqui fruit is obtained from an indigenous Chilean plant known as the “maqui” or “Chilean wineberry tree” (Aristotelia chilensis). All ingredients conform to E.U. and FDA food laws and regulations.
19. What are the ingredients in freeze-dried maqui?
  • Freeze-dry maqui berry is made 100% from organic freeze-dried maqui berries. The product does not contain any colors, flavors, preservatives or any other additives.
21. How can freeze dry maqui be consumed?
  • Freeze dry maqui powder can be added to yoghurt, granola, cereals, juices, smoothies, etc. It can also be used as an ingredient in the preparation of desserts, baking and salads.
23. How is maqui packed?
  • The freeze-dried maqui product is packed in boxes of 20 kg separated into 4 bags of 5 kilos each. Blue rectangular PEBD bags of 110 microns and measures 410 x 620 mm are used.
27. What is the shelf-life of freeze-dried maqui?

The duration of the product is 18 months from the elaboration date indicated on the packet.

29. What are +Maqui capsules?
  • +Maqui capsules are dietary supplements made with Delphinol®, which ensures a high antioxidant content, enriched with active ingredients to provide a powerful combination of health benefits.
31. What is the ingredient list of each variety of capsules?
  • +Maqui + propolis: ascorbic acid (vitamin C), gelatin, Delphinol®, freeze-dried maqui powder, propolis powder, maltodextrin, amorphous silicon dioxide.
  • +Maqui + rosehip: freeze-dried maqui powder, rosehip powder (Rosa canina L.), hydrolyzed collagen, gelatin, maltodextrin, Delphinol®, DL-alpha tocopherol acetate (vitamin E), amorphous silicon dioxide, retinol acetate monohydrate (vitamin A).
32. . What is the recommended daily intake for each kind of capsules?

+Maqui + propolis: 1 capsule/day

+Maqui + rosehip: 2 capsules/day

+Maqui +omega 3: 2 capsules/day

33. Are there any side effects or contraindications for +Maqui Dietary Suplements?
  • Not recommended for consumption by children under 8, or women that are pregnant or breastfeeding, unless indicated by a health professional. Use as part of a healthy balanced diet.
35. What are +Maqui drinks?
  • +Maqui drinks are beverages that contain maqui extract and other ingredients to provide a refreshing, delicious drink that can deliver all the health benefits associated with the antioxidants contained in maquis.
37. What is the serving size of +Maqui drinks?

Serving size is 250 mL or one cup.

40. Are there any side effects or contraindications for +Maqui drinks?
  • Due to its content of ginseng, green tea extract and vitamins, its use is not recommended for children under 15, or women that are pregnant or breastfeeding.
41. How +Maqui drinks taste like?
  • Maqui drinks have a very pleasant sweet and sour taste and an astringent texture, mildly carbonated due to its high content of anthocyanins.
43. What is the nutritional information of the + Maqui Drinks?

Regular Maqui drink 

 Light Maqui Drink

45. What is the nutritional information of the Dietary Supplements?

Maqui Omega 3

Maqui Rosehip

Maqui Propolis

2. How is the maqui fruit like?
  • Maqui berries are a delicious fruit with a dry flavor. The outside of the berry is a shiny dark purple; the inside is a lighter purple. The average diameter of a maqui is 5-6 mm. Maquis contain 2 to 3 seeds per berry.
4. Can the maqui berry be eaten?
  • Yes, the maqui berry has been consumed for thousands of years by humans, mainly by the indigenous populations that settled and lived in Patagonia 12,000 years ago. It was consumed like fermented beverage from fruits.
6. What are antioxidants and why are they so important?

 

  • An antioxidant is a molecule that is capable of delaying or preventing oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation reactions can produce free radicals that start chain reactions that can produce damage in body cells.
  • Oxidative stress has been associated with the pathogenesis of many human diseases. For this reason, pharmacology intensively studies the use of antioxidants, particularly as a treatment for cerebrovascular diseases and neurodegenerative diseases.
8. What are anthocyanins and delphinidins?
  • Anthocyanins are polyphenols with antioxidant activities that can be biologically beneficial for human health.
  • Delphinidins are a type of anthocyanins, one of the primary pigments of plants, and also a powerful antioxidant. Maquis are particularly rich in delphinidin content.

 

 

 

10. Why maqui berry is considered the most powerful antioxidant on Earth?

 

  • Maquis are a rich source of anthocyanins, which is the family of compounds that gives the maqui berry its deep, dark purple color, as well as other flavonoids, which is a diverse family of antioxidant compounds.
  • However, these antioxidants that are common in many fruits, such as blueberries and blackberries, do not tell the whole story. There is something unique and special about the maqui berry that differentiates it from other fruits with high antioxidant levels.
  • A recent study shows that the maqui berry contains significant amounts of 3-hydroxyindole. 3-hydroxyindole is part of the class of hydroxyindole O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) enzymes which regulates the conversion of serotonin into melatonin.
  • This is important for three reasons: (1) melatonin is a strong antioxidant; (2) melatonin stimulates production of SOD, one of our body’s endogenous antioxidants; and (3) melatonin is a thermogenic agent. This means that it is involved in the regulation of increase of thermogenesis, the process of heat production. Other thermogenic agents are caffeine, ephedrine, pepper, etc.
  • In other words, this special enzyme has three strengths: it produces a powerful antioxidant, stimulates antioxidant defenses in our bodies, and helps to generate energy metabolism.

(Source: BELL ADVISORY SERVICES LLC, Maqui – the Highest Antioxidant Fruit).

Fresh fruit Anthocyanins content Delphinidin content Quercetin content
  mg/100g of fresh fruit w/w
Maqui berry 1,610.0 1,370.0 10.0
Aronia 410.2 0.0  
Bilberry 285.16 97.59 3.04
Acai 53.6 0.0  
Elderberry 485.3 0.0 26.77
Blackraspberry 686.8 0.0  
Cranberry 66.7 0.9 14.84
Blackurrant 201.0 101.7 4.48
Blackberry 90.64 0.0 3.58

 

  • Another method to test antioxidant activity of food products is total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) assay. This method has been widely used to determine total antioxidant activity based on measuring oxygen consumption during lipid oxidation reaction induced by thermal decomposition. A comparison of different berries using this method also places maqui as containing the most powerful antioxidant capacity.

 

 

 

14. Is there any official mention of maqui berry by an authority in the United States?
  • The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) has released a Database for the Flavonoid Content of Selected Foods, current version 3.1 of December 2013. The list establishes that raw maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) has one of the highest contents of the cyanidin and delphinidin among the foods listed.
  • Also, maqui berry is currently on the approved US import fruits and vegetables list published by the USDA.
  • It is also important to mention that Delphinol® (maqui concentrate used in +Maqui capsules), has been granted Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status in the United States. According to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, this means that the substance is generally recognized, among qualified experts, as having been adequately shown to be safe under the conditions of its intended use.
16. How is the fruit harvesting done?
  • Arauco’s fruit harvesting process complies with organic certification requirements established by ECOCERT, a global leader in monitoring and guaranteeing the quality and certification of organic, environmentally-friendly products.
  • Harvesting is done in the warm months in the South of Chile, between December and February. The aim is to rescue traditional knowledge of fruit harvesters, while fostering relationships that help strengthen partnerships, and opposing bad practice in agricultural labor that may affect the future availability of the maqui berry.
  • Thus, a close-knit relationship with groups of local fruit harvesters has been created, with whom we have learned together about the best way to take full advantage of the maqui berry. Fruit harvesters were trained on environmentally friendly harvesting techniques in safe conditions. They work in fair and formal conditions of employment, and they have transportation, food, and personal protective gear. The conditions of these fruit harvesters are undoubtedly far superior to the conditions normally seen in this business, which tend to be informal and unstable.

 

18. What is the active principle equivalency of freeze-dried maqui?

Freeze-dried maqui has an ORAC value of 57,680 umol TE/100g and contains 6,554 mg EAG/100 mg of total polyphenols.

20. What does it taste like? What are the physical characteristics?
  • Freeze-dried maqui is a powder soluble in water, and it has a pleasant sweet and sour taste.
22. What are the health benefits of +Maqui products?
  • Maqui is a native berry that grows in the South of Chile, known as a superfruit due to its high content of polyphenols, anthocyanins, delphinidins and other nutrients that help neutralize free radicals.
  • There are many different studies that have investigated the benefits of maqui and its molecules for human health. Some of the most notable results are the bioactive components of maqui berries have anti-inflammatory, anti-adipogenic, anti-atherogenic, and cardioprotective activities. This is linked to the high content of anthocyanin, flavonols (rutin, quercetin and myricetin), flavanols (catechin) and phenolic acids.
24. What are Super Foods?
  • Super foods are those foods rich in essential nutrients, which could help control and prevent various chronic diseases, which nowadays are becoming more common.
25. What is the recommended daily intake of freeze-dried maqui?

The recommended daily dose is 2 g or half a teaspoon of freeze dry maqui per day.

26. What does it taste like? What are the physical characteristics of freeze-dried maqui?

Freeze-dried maqui is a powder soluble in water, and it has a pleasant sweet and sour taste.

28. Why are critical nutrients not declared?
  • Contents of critical nutrients in freeze dried +Maqui are below the limits established by Chilean regulation therefore they do not require a critical nutrient declaration. These limits are as follows:

●       

●      Energy (kcal/100ml)

●      Sodium (mg/100 ml)

●      Sugar (g/100 ml)

●      Saturated fats (g/100 g)

●      Limit for solid food. Values higher than

●      275

●      400

●      10

●      3

Source: Chilean Food Sanitary Regulations.

30. What is Delphinol®?
  • Delphinol® is maqui berry concentrate with a standardized content of anthocyanins and delphinidins. Delphinol® contains the highest content of anthocyanins and delphinidins of all food ingredients currently available in the market.
  • Antioxidants contained in Delphinol® act against the five most important free radicals that produce oxidative damage in the human body: peroxyls, hydroxyls, peroxynitrites, superoxide anions and other oxygen-based free radicals.
  • Delphinol® is produced in Anklam (Germany) using patented production technology and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP).
34. Why are critical nutrients not declared in +Maqui Dietary Supplements?

 

  • These products are dietary supplements, therefore they do not require a declaration of critical nutrients.
36. What are the ingredients of +Maqui drinks?
  • Normal version ingredient list: carbonated water, concentrated maqui juice, concentrated blackberry juice, concentrated blueberry juice, fructose, sugar, citric acid, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), ginseng extract (Panax ginsengA. Meyer), DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E), sucralose, green tea extract.
  • Light version ingredient list: carbonated water, concentrated maqui juice, concentrated blackberry juice, concentrated blueberry juice, fructose, citric acid, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, stevia, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), ginseng extract (Panax ginsengA. Meyer), DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E), sucralose, green tea extract.
38. What is the recommended daily dose for +Maqui drinks?

The recommended serving size is 1 can for day.

39. Why are +Maqui drinks better than other antioxidant drinks available in the market?
  • There are other drinks available in the market that are considered good sources of antioxidants, such as green tea, coffee, and red wine. However, unlike +Maqui, consumption of these drinks as a source of antioxidants is limited due to decreased iron bioavailability, caffeine and alcohol intake, respectively.
  • According to USDA Database for the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of Selected Foods, the ORAC in one can of +Maqui is equivalent to 6 cups of green tea infusion, 2 cups of green tea drink and almost 100 ml of red wine.
  • According to analysis conducted by independent sources, +Maqui has a higher content of total polyphenols, higher ORAC value and higher content of total anthocyanins than other competitors.
42. Why are critical nutrients not declared on +Maqui drinks?

Contents of critical nutrients in both +Maqui drinks are under the limits established by Chilean regulation therefore they do not require a critical nutrient declaration. These limits are as follows:

 

Energy (kcal/100ml)

Sodium (mg/100 ml)

Sugar(g/100 ml)

Saturated fats (g/100 g)

Limit for liquid food. Values higher than

70

100

5

3

Source: Chilean Food Sanitary Regulations.

44. What is the nutritional information of the + Maqui Water?

Maqui Still Water

Maqui Water Light Gas

46. What is the nutritional information of the +Maqui Super Foods?